Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that specializes in gum diseases. The word Periodontal literally means ‘around the teeth’. Periodontitis is characterized by accumulation of bacterial plaque that eventually destroys the gum tissue and the bone that holds the teeth. The goal of periodontal therapy is to clean the teeth and get rid of all dental plaque, tartar and calculus – that is responsible for causing inflammation and bleeding in the gums.
In this therapy the infected teeth undergo processes like hand scaling or ultrasonic scaling. To smoothen the root a process called root planning is done and to remove dead and infected tissues curettage is performed. In certain cases oral antibiotics and antibacterial rinses may also be recommended. Special dental tools or devices called scalers are used to remove the layers of plaque or tartar, which are the main factors responsible for periodontal diseases. These tools vibrate at a high frequency and have a pointed tip, which helps break down the strong layer of plaque and wash it away. However, because they essentially erode the bone of the teeth along with the plaque, they are not advisable as the preferred solution to clearing calculus, and certainly not on a regular basis. Daily brushing and flossing can prevent the build up of plaque as any possible deposits are washed away on a daily basis.